Optimal and appropriate input in a second language: The potential of (modified-)elaborated input in distance and classroom learning







Instructors’ difficulties in judging whether linguistic material is suitable for their students' level seem to have been aggravated during the pandemic (Conti, 2021). In this situation, there is the risk of exposing learners to inappropriate input, which can be detrimental to language acquisition. The proposed solution, (modified-)elaborated input, is designed to increase comprehensibility without sacrificing the richness of authentic input, which is crucial for language acquisition (Long, 2015, 2020; O’Donnel, 2009; Yano, Long, & Ross, 1994). The features of elaborated input make its application beneficial in any kind of language course. In addition, in the context of online teaching, elaborated input can be a powerful tool to deal with the issue of input appropriateness. This work analyzes the theoretical underpinnings of elaborated and modified-elaborated input while providing a review of the existing empirical data supporting its effectiveness.

Author Biographies

Ilaria Borro, University of Portsmouth

Ilaria Borro recently completed a PhD at the University of Portsmouth (UK), with a dissertation on incidental second language learning. She has been teaching Italian as a second language for ten years at universities, public institutions, and private institutions. At the same time, she contributes to research of second language acquisition through experimental studies, presentations at international conferences, and scientific publications. She is an active member of GRAAL (Group of Research and Action on Language Learning), contributing to teacher training and empirical research support, with the aim of disseminating research-informed practices of language teaching.

Silvia Scolaro, Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia

Silvia Scolaro is adjunct professor at Ca’ Foscari University (Venezia, Italy) working in the Department of Linguistic and Cultural Comparative Studies as both an instructor and researcher. She holds a degree in Oriental Languages from Ca’ Foscari University and has acquired both Master level I and II certificates in teaching Italian Language to Learners from the Laboratory Itals at Ca’ Foscari. In 2006, she co-founded one of the first schools in China to teach Italian language to Chinese students. She held the position of school director until 2012 when she returned to Italy. In the interim, she has worked for Italian universities in Pavia, Modena, and Reggio Emilia as an instructor of Italian language. She attended a specialization course for special needs students in 2016. Since 2020, she has been a member of the AItLA (Associazione Italiana Linguistica Applicata, Italian Association of Applied Linguistics) and cooperates with GRAAL (Group of Research and Action on Language Learning). She has held her current position since 2019 and continues her research and teaching activities.



How to Cite

Borro, I., & Scolaro, S. (2021). Optimal and appropriate input in a second language: The potential of (modified-)elaborated input in distance and classroom learning. EuroAmerican Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages, 8(2), 53–69. https://doi.org/10.21283/2376905X.14.246



Research Articles - Special Issue